~tips for reducing pack weight…

Take time – before, during, & after each hike – to peruse your gear, your packing habits, even the clothing you wear, for ways to reduce the weight that you must bear. You may be surprised at the amount of unnecessary weight that you inflict on yourself. Keep in mind, though, it is a process. A long-term commitment and challenge. You will, undoubtedly, think of something new practically every trip.

Here are some weight-reducing tips some are original, some are commonly known and used.

•3 lb Pack, 2 lb Sleeping Bag, 3 lb tent
This is, perhaps, your biggest opportunity to reduce weight. Seek out a good 3 lb pack that is relatively comfortable with 35 to 40 pounds in it. Since, most of the time, you will be carrying less than that, the suspension of that 3 lb pack should be adequate for you. Get a good 2 lb, 20 degree, goose-down (or comparable synthetic) sleeping bag and a good 3 lb 3 or 4-season tent. Let’s see, 7 lbs minus 3 lbs (pack), 3.5 lbs minus 2 lbs (bag), 5 lbs minus 3 lbs (tent)–that’s a weight reduction of 7.5 pounds. SEVEN AND A HALF POUNDS !!!

•Seek out TITANIUM products
Pots, stoves, backpack stays, tent pegs, anything metal, if made of titanium, will be significantly lighter than any other metal. For example, my titanium cook pot (with lid & handles) weighs 6 oz. That compares to 14 oz. for comparable MSR or SIGG lightweight stainless steel and about 10 oz. for Traveling Light’s Aluminum entry. For stoves, my titanium Primus butane/propane (with windscreen) weighs 3.4 oz, compared to MSR Whisperlite–12.7 oz, and Camping Gaz Micro Bleuet–7 oz. (both without windscreen). So far, in my experience, strength and durability of titanium products seem to be more than adequate.

•Toothbrush / Tooth Powder / Dental Floss / Sewing Kit
Assuming you use more than just your finger to clean your teeth, here’s a tip or two.
First find a toothbrush with a short head, say 3/4 inch. Next, cut off the handle–leaving about two inches to hold onto–and finish it off by sanding-down the rough edges. Oh yeah, drill a few holes in the remaining handle — if it’s a fat handle, hollow it out with your drill. Be creative — don’t forget to show it to me, if we meet on the trail !🙂

Tooth powder is lighter than paste, and can be meted out much easier. I measure a small palm-full for each day on the trail and store it in a very-small, very light plastic container which resembles a 35mm film container, but is about 1/2 the size and weight.

If you are going to carry dental floss, two suggestions. Take the floss, leave the plastic container behind. Rather than packing a sewing kit, use the waxed floss as emergency thread for gear repair.  Put a sewing needle or two in your first aid kit or somewhere else safe.

•Water Is Heavy
So only carry what you need. Here are two potential ways to reduce the amount of H2o you’re packing (1) If you know the area you’re in and can be sure there are watering holes up ahead, pack only enough to get to the next water hole. Also, (2) if you drink as much as your innards can hold before you hit the trail and at each water fill-up, thereafter, you won’t need to carry as much, after you get going.
I follow these tips and now, most of the time, carry at least one pound less on my back because of it. (Caution: If you alpine scramble or otherwise navigate crosscountry – esp. if you desert hike – you may need to pack it all – plan carefully.)

•About Stuff Sacks
I carry much of my gear in color-coded stuff sacs and zip-loc freezer baggies. Where I use stuff sacs, I adhere to the following. (1) Use the right size sack–wasted space means unnecessary weight. (2) Cut off labels inside sack (3) Allow just enough drawcord so sack can have full opening–cut off the rest and melt the ends so they won’t unravel (4) Use the strongest-smallest plastic cord-locks you can find. All this may seem insignificant, but it adds up after a while.

•Clothes
Cut off unnecessary labels and lengths of cord. If garments have cord locks, replace them with lighter versions, or instead, use small doubled-up patches of light-weight leather with slits. I’ve noticed that some manufacturers have been doing this, also.
If you carry extra clothes for emergencies, cut off pockets, cords, tags, unneeded linings, etc.
I have saved some weight on hats by cutting out labels and replacing plastic adjusting straps with elastic. It feels better and won’t break in the field as easily as the plastic ones.

•Backpacks
Shorten nylon webbing straps wherever possible. I once saved a quarter pound (4 oz) by removing the hypalon crampon patch from the top of my pack’s lid and the nylon belt loop with foam backing from the inside (which allows the lid to double as a hip sack when removed from the pack). In addition, I removed a couple of plastic loop fasteners on the sides of the lid used as part of the hip sack configuration. Most of the time, I don’t need those parts (and their corresponding 1/4 pound !).
For the times I was taking a long trip which included some day-hiking or I needed the heavy-duty hypalon patch, I purchased a second lid.

•Boots, Shoes & Laces
Two tips here. The first, definitely do it. The second, consider it a potential way to significantly reduce relative pack weight, but don’t take it as gospel. Analyze your own situation, experiment, and do what’s safe and healthful.

First, on shoes and boots, I cut off excess shoe lace–for two reasons (1) excess shoelace means unnecessary weight and (2) excess shoelace means safety hazard in the bush. Ever have a big lace-loop catch on an exposed root or tangly bush ? After you cut them, scorch/burn/melt the ends so they won’t unravel.

And secondly, as your pack weight goes down, your requirement for heavy boots is reduced, as well. Since each pound on your feet is supposedly equivalent to 5 pounds on your back, you can reduce the relative weight of your pack by getting a pair of lighter weight boots.
If you have, as one lightweight packer terms it, entered the new paradigm where your pack weight is really low–25 pounds for four or five days–you might even want to consider going with a sturdy pair of 2 pound cross-trainers or running shoes. Like I said, though, there’s potential here, but experiment. What works for me, may not work for you.

Consider the implication. Assuming the “1 pound on the foot is equal to 5 pounds on the back” theory is true, trading-in the 4 pound boots for a pair of 1 3/4 pound running shoes (with vibram soles) would decrease your relative pack weight approximately 11 1/4 pounds ! It’s at least worth a second thought !

~plants 8 amazing things…

8-amazing-things-about-plants-2.jpg1. Plants have in their structure xylem tubes that transport water and mineral salts and phloem tubes that carry the food. Both types of tubes are produced by a meristematic tissue called cambium. Xylem is produced inward, phloem outward. Death xylem layers form the wood.

2. The green pigment called chlorophyll allows the photosynthesis through which plants synthesize sugars coming from water and carbon dioxide. Even brown or red leaves contain chlorophyll. Only parasite plants, like dodders and fungi lack chlorophyll. Sugars stock sun energy. In greenhouses, artificial light and supplementary carbon dioxide boost photosynthesis. But plants also need nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, calcium and potassium, plus minor amounts of other elements, for synthesizing all the necessary organic chemicals. Most plants store energy as starch.

3. Plants breathe all the time, breaking down the sugars for getting energy. Plants also sweat, mainly through their leaves. Water goes out through small pores called stoma. This creates an absorption force transmitted to the roots. In wet environments, plants sweat less, but in dry, windy areas,
the water loss is high. Plants adapted to dry and hot weather lack leaves (cacti) or have special changes in their leaves that impede water loss, like thick cuticles and less stoma whose opening can be controlled.

4. Plants growing in the shadow have larger leaves; plants can also direct their leaves towards the light source, a phenomenon called phototropism. Because plants lack a nervous system, plants’ reactions are controlled by hormones. Gibberellins are involved in stimulating plants’ growth, while abscisic acid inhibits the plant growth, causing the leaves and mature fruits to fall.

Geotropism is the plant’s reaction to gravitation: their roots always grow downward. Chemotropism is the plant’s reaction to chemicals, like auxins, hormones that control plants’ development and the growth rate of various parts. Auxins are concentrated in roots and shoots. Too much auxin inhibits the growth. If a plant is placed horizontally, auxins accumulate in the lower part, causing the curbed vertical growth of the plant.

Auxins are more concentrated in the shadowed part of the plant; this way they stimulate those cells to grow more rapidly, turning the shoot towards the light. This is a method through which a hormone creates movement. Auxins are involved also in the opening of the flowers, being influenced by light and temperature. Heat makes the petals grow faster causing the opening of the blossoms while the cold can revert this process.

In vines, the growth hormones concentrate into the opposite side to the support, fact that causes the curly growth around the support. As auxins control the shoots’ development, they generate the bushy (or not) aspect of a plant. When shoots are cut or destroyed, the auxins levels decrease, turning on “sleeping” buds that produce new shoots.

5. Plants growing in the tropical areas experience relatively short daylight all round the year, while those from higher latitudes experience very long daylight during the vegetation time in the summer. That’s why tropical plants cultivated in temperate areas, like Dahlia brought from Mexico, will flower during the shorter autumn days.

6. Today, there are about 400,000 species of plants. First plants going out of the water (mosses and ferns) are still connected to wet environments, due to physiological and reproductive reasons. First flowered plants (gymnosperms) depended on wind for pollination and seed dispersal. Angiosperms (fruit plants) evolved with the pollinating insects.

7. The oldest known “plants” are 3.1 billion years old blue-green “algae” (a type of photosynthetic bacteria). These plants still form scums on lawns or forest trails and are the first organisms to have made photosynthesis. Bacteria can divide in 20-30 minutes, and a sole cell can produce hundreds of millions of bacteria in 10 hours. Most bacteria have about 0.00001 mm in length.

8. About 1.5 billion years ago, the first real unicellular algae appeared. They still make most of the phytoplankton. Euglena, a unicellular alga, can also feed the way animals do. Today, unicellular algae grow from the oceans to lakes and wet places (like shadowed walls). 590 million years ago, there were over 900 species of large pluricellular algae (“sea weeds”). Likens are symbioses between an alga and a fungus. They are so resistant, that they can live at 5,600 (19,000 ft) in Himalaya and are the first pioneers of barren rocks or colonize tree trunks or bones. Some likens are used for achieving turnsole, a chemical indicator that turns red in acid solutions and blue in alkaline solutions.

Photo Hunt: old-fashioned!

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~hey guys here is my entry for this week photohunt: old-fashioned! well, as you can see I think that is an old fashioned!!! hehehe lolz c”,) that is my aunts picture and yes she is very old fashioned. The way she dress and all things that she like is really old fashioned hehehe well, I think that’s she really is🙂

that’s it for this week guys, hope you like it!!! happy weekend everyone~

9 Things About Ocean Life

~hey guys check this out… c”,)9-things-about-ocean-life-2.jpg

1. Ocean life can go from the surface down to… 2.5 km (1.5 mi) under the ocean floor. That’s the place where living bacteria were found!
2. At a depth of 5 m (16 ft), 50 % of the solar light is already absorbed. At a depth of 25 m (83 ft), just 3 % of the sunlight penetrates.

3. The base of the food chain is the ocean is made by plankton, microscopical algae and tiny animals feeding on them. The plants (phytoplankton) make photosynthesis, while the animals (zooplankton) stay for the day at depths of 300-600 m (1,000-2,000 ft), to avoid surface predators. Zooplankton is made from crustaceans to worms and the larvae of many fish and mollusks.

4. Jellyfish are considered to be plankton. They vary from 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter to 2 m (6.6 ft). The Portuguese Man O’ War jellyfish is the most dangerous species for humans, with its 30 m (100 ft) long tentacles.

5. Did you know that sharks and rays cannot move backward? While bony fish have the swimming bladder for flotation, sharks and rays have their huge fatty livers for this purpose.

6. The largest bony fish in the ocean is the sunfish (Mola). The two tonnes fish stays at depths of 300-400 m (1,000-1,300 ft) during the day and ascend to the surface during the night, to feed on plankton.

World’s largest fish, the whale shark, up to 2.65 m (41.5 ft) long, and weighing over 21.5 tonnes, also feeds on plankton. Manta ray, up to 7 m (23 ft) between its “wing” tips, is also a plankton eater.

7. Fish living at depths of over 1 km (0.6 mi) are considered abyssal.

8. Sea snakes can stay up to 8 hours underwater. Just some sea snakes go out of the water to lay their eggs. The venom of the sea snakes is more powerful than that of the cobra, paralyzing the victim.

9. Around submarine volcanoes, life communities form, based not on solar energy, but on the Earth’s. Giant clams, the size of a plate, mussels, crabs, fish, octopuses, snails, sea cucumbers and huge tubular worms (up to 3.5 m or 12 ft) live on a food chain based on bacteria that form food not through photosynthesis, but chemical reactions using the heat of the volcanoes.

Wordless Wednesday!!!

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~hey guys check out my entry for this week wordless wednesday~

this is the peak of mount parker, general santos city philippines… c”,) yes guys this is one of my outdoor adventure that was taken about a year now! that is one of the best time I’ve ever have with my outdoor activities!

this 2nd picture is the lake maughan, where in you can see this at the peak of mt. parker!

~so guys that it for this week! have a great days ahead and enjoy!!!

differences…

~guys here are another batch for those differences:

What is the difference between dissemble and disassemble?

Disassemble means ‘to take something apart’. You can see that the word can be split into a prefix dis- and the root assemble. An example is: She disassembled the Lego creation. Dissemble means ‘to alter or change the appearance of in order to deceive or conceal; to misrepresent or pretend’. This word’s etymology is trickier: it may be a form of dissimule, which means ‘to alter the semblance of in order to deceive or conceal’. So, the breakdown of dissemble is dis- and the root semble, or ‘appear, seem’. An example of this word is: We witnessed the dissembled persecution of good citizens.

What is the difference between advice and advise?

The first is a noun, the second a verb. Advice is a noun generally meaning ‘an opinion about what could or should be done in a situation or about a problem; counsel given’ as is “You never take my advice!” Advise is a verb meaning ‘to offer advice to; to counsel’ as in “We advise you to unplug the appliance before cleaning it.” If you have trouble remembering which is which, think of the pronunciation: the verb has the z sound at the end, but you would not pronounce a word ending in -ice as -ize.

What is the difference between complacent and complaisant?

Complaisant means ‘eager to please’ and ‘showing a cheerful willingness to fulfill others’ wishes’. Complacent is quite the opposite, ‘being pleased with oneself; contented to a fault’. However, they share one meaning, which may cause them to be confused – each also carries the sense of ‘obliging, agreeable’. One could differentiate the two words by saying that complaisant is the active adverb and complacent denotes a more passive feeling. Complaisant was first recorded in 1647, deriving from Latin complacere. Complacent comes from the same Latin word, but is not found in writing until 1660.

~enjoy happy weekend… c”,)

Photo Hunt: important!

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~hey guys here is my entry for this week photohunt: important! so how was that for the theme of the week guys??? I think it’s suite for this week theme important, you now why? all the things that I achieve in my life is important especially this diploma and yearbook, I really long for this!

that’s it guys! hope you will like it and enjoy your weekend… c”,)

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